Glossary

 

A | C | D | E | I | L | M | P | R | S
A

Accreditation of study programmes is the process of achieving public recognition for a study programme through the assessment of its quality, harmonization with the labour market needs, compliance with the adopted standards and comparability with the same or similar programmes abroad.

Consistency, effectiveness and applicability of the planned study programme are particularly analysed in the accreditation procedure

Affirmative action means introduction of special measures aimed at creating conditions for equality and protection of the rights of persons that are in an unequal position in education on any grounds.

ADDIE model of instructional design is the model of developing e-courses that includes mutually integrated steps: Analysis Phase – identifying learner’s existing knowledge and the learning needs of the learner, as well as resources; Design/Planning Phase – planning the learning objectives, development of the programme, planning lesson activities and contents; Development Phase – setting the learning steps and creating activities and contents, forming learning platforms; Implementation Phase – training for use of online technology, uploading the contents, testing methods and procedures; Evaluation Phase – systemic monitoring and measuring of the course process and effects.

Asynchronous communication is the e-communication between students and teachers at the time selected by each of them individually. It is done through forums, e-mails, and exchange of documents, SMS and other tools.

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C

Credit (credit point, a point) is the key element of the CSPK that is granted to individual education programmes or their parts (courses/modules/subjects) as well as to other forms of education, i.e. learning (projects, seminars, research, field work, work at home, practical work, library activities etc.). It reflects the amount of work required for each of these activities in relation to the total amount of work required to achieve certain qualification level.

Collaborative e-learning is the philosophy of e-learning as a type of interaction and lifestyle where individuals are responsible for their actions, including learning and respect for the abilities of their peers (Pantiz). Collaborative e-learning is implemented through the use of certain e-technologies (e.g. Wiki technology).

Cooperative e-learning is learning where e-students achieve certain results and common goals by working together with equal members of the working groups, i.e. members of e-class. Cooperation is related to the techniques or working together with a view to achieving certain goals. In the learning process this approach combines techniques of face-to-face work and e-learning. Cooperative e-learning is an operationalized learning structure.

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D

Diploma Supplement is a public document attached to a higher institution diploma. It gives a detailed presentation of the level, nature, contents, system and rules of studying and the results achieved in course of studies by the person who is issued the diploma. It is based on the basic template established for the unique European Higher Education Area.

Dispositive (of an e-course) in pedagogical context is a situational functional-behavioural structural framework or order/system for carrying out tasks and activities, using e-technology for teaching and evaluating. Possible dispositions of e-courses are: instructional, collaborative and reflexive (Fedeli & Rossi).

Distance Learning – DL uses the potentials of information-communication technology (ICT) in the teaching process and communication among the participants. ICT concept does not limit any of the current preconditions for organizing teaching/learning process.

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E

European Higher Education Area includes higher education institutions of the countries signatories to the Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education in Bologna (1999).

ECTS is the European Credit Transfer System. One ECTS credit means 30 hours of student’s work required for one or several of the following: classes, learning, practical work, preparation and presentation of papers, taking mid-term exams and final exams. Study programme is the basic unit for classification of higher education with a defined structure and number of ECTS credits that ensure that the individual can achieve learning outcomes required for acquisition of knowledge, skills and competences for the field of work on the level of higher education defined in the national qualification framework and issuance of a diploma.

Expert is a person that has exceptional knowledge and skills in certain field or subject in the scope that is relevant for establishment of facts, problem solving or for understanding a situation,

E-tutor is an associate in teaching that leads the student through the entire learning process and is closest to the students. E-tutor should have expert knowledge in the field of the subject, competences in the field of character education and competences for developing and implementing DL.

E – teaching/learning includes a system of activities of students and teachers in the teaching process supported and shaped by information-communication technology (electronic technical solutions).

E – class (e-community) is a group of participants in an online course, i.e. a group of e-students that come into interaction in the teaching process, as well as various forms of cooperative and collaborative learning to achieve common learning goals.

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I

Integrated study programme is a combination of undergraduate and Master studies of 300 ECTS.

Instruction design is the process of developing e-courses. It includes application of the learning and teaching theories, as well as various principles, methods and teaching techniques. It plans and develops learning materials and shapes the processes of teaching and learning in specific subjects and units (CARNet).

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L

Licencing is the procedure of establishing the type of institution, accredited study programmes, maximum number of students that can be enrolled in certain study programmes, levels of education and diplomas acquired in certain institution. Decision on licencing is rendered by the Ministry and it is published in the “Official Gazette of Montenegro”.

Lifelong learning is the overall activity of learning throughout one’s life with a view to improving knowledge, skills and competences related to personal, civic and social prospects and/or employment prospects. It includes learning at any age (from early youth to old age) and in all forms (formal, informal and non-formal).

LMS – Learning Management System, VLE – Virtual Learning Environment is the software that provides services for delivery of educational contents, collaboration, monitoring student activities and assessing their knowledge, as well as other forms of support to electronic learning.

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M

Module is a functional unit that defines learning outcomes, as well as the teaching process goals, methods and contents and the requirements that a student has to meet to obtain access to the module.

Montenegrin system of credit transfer (Crnogorski sistem prenosa kredita – CSPK) is the process that ensures that learning outcomes achieved in one context can be recognized in another context. It is based on the procedures of testing, confirmation and recognition and it is in line with the European Credit Transfer System for higher education (ECTS) and European Credit System for vocational education and training (ECVET).

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P

Public and valid study programme is the accredited study programme.

Programme for lifelong learning is a part of a study programme, i.e. a module, with defined structure that ensures learning outcomes required for acquiring competences and issuing certificates for accomplishing connected tasks in the fields of work that fall within the scope of higher education as defined in the national qualification framework.

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R

Reaccreditation of higher education institutions is the process of achieving public recognition for a study programme through the assessment of its quality, harmonization with the labour market needs, compliance with the adopted standards and comparability with the same or similar programmes abroad. The goal of reaccreditation is to establish if the higher education institution that is subject to evaluation meets European Standards and Guidelines for ensuring quality in the Higher Education Area and if it has potentials for improvement.

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S

Scenario for e-teaching/e-course is the script/preparation for e-teaching/e-course defining activities of the students, activities of the teachers and sequence and connections between such activities, goals and outcomes, as well as procedures for evaluation.

Synchronous communication in e-teaching/online courses is the communication between course participants and e-teachers in real time (simultaneous). It is done through chat rooms, using technical support (web cameras, microphones, telephones), and videoconference communication.

System for electronic learning is a complex system that includes technological components (infrastructure), and also a set of organizational, administrative and instructional components for distance learning.

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